Monday, June 10, 2024

Child Support Obligations: Can You Stop Paying If You Don't See Your Kids?

Opinion Article: Should Parents Stop Paying Child Support if They Don't See Their Kids?


When a couple with children decides to divorce or separate, child support payments are often put in place to ensure the well-being of the children involved. However, what happens when a parent no longer sees their kids? Can they stop paying child support? This is a complex and often controversial issue, and there are arguments for both sides.

The Ethics of Stopping Child Support Payments

Some parents argue that if they are no longer seeing their children, they should not be obligated to financially support them. After all, child support payments are intended to provide for the child's basic needs and help maintain their standard of living. If a parent is no longer part of the child's life, why should they continue to bear that financial burden? However, this argument rests on the assumption that the only reason for paying child support is to cover basic needs. In reality, child support is intended to ensure that children have access to the same standard of living they would have had if their parents had not separated. This can include things like extracurricular activities, vacations, and college tuition. If a parent stops paying child support, they are not only failing to support their child's essential needs, but they are potentially depriving them of important opportunities and experiences.

The Legal Obligations of Child Support Payments

Legally, the obligation to pay child support is not dependent on whether or not a parent has contact with their child. Child support orders are based on various factors, including the income of both parents, the number of children, and the time the child spends with each parent. Just because a parent is not seeing their child does not mean they are not still responsible for their financial well-being. Violating a child support order can result in legal consequences, including wage garnishment, fines, and even jail time. It is crucial for parents to seek legal advice if they are struggling to make child support payments, rather than simply stopping them.

The Emotional Impact of Stopping Child Support Payments

Beyond the legal and financial aspects, stopping child support payments can have a significant emotional impact on both the parent and the child. For the parent, failing to meet their financial obligations can lead to guilt and shame. For the child, it can feel like a rejection, and can damage their sense of self-worth and security. It's crucial for parents to remember that even if they are not seeing their child, they are still an important figure in their lives. Financial support is just one way that a parent can show their love and commitment to their child.

Compromise and Alternative Solutions

In some cases, it may be possible for parents to come to a compromise or alternative solution regarding child support. For example, if a parent is not seeing their child due to a custody dispute, they may be able to negotiate a new custody arrangement that satisfies both parties. If a parent is struggling financially, they may be able to come to an agreement with the other parent about lowering the child support payments. It's important to remember that the ultimate goal of child support is to ensure the well-being of the child. If parents can put aside their differences and work together to find a solution that benefits everyone involved, both they and their child will be better off.

The Importance of Seeking Legal Advice

If a parent is considering stopping child support payments, it is crucial that they seek legal advice first. There may be options available to them that they are not aware of, or consequences that they have not considered. An experienced family law attorney can help a parent understand their legal obligations and rights, and can provide guidance on how to navigate difficult family situations. They can also advocate for the parent in court, if necessary.


At the end of the day, there is no clear-cut answer to the question of whether parents should stop paying child support if they don't see their kids. However, it's important for parents to remember that child support is not just about covering basic needs – it's about providing for their child's overall well-being and ensuring that they have access to the same opportunities as their peers. If a parent is struggling to make child support payments, they should seek legal advice and explore alternative options, rather than simply stopping payments. Child Support in Custody Matters-Child,Custody

Tuesday, June 4, 2024

Investigative Articles

Human trafficking is a heinous crime that plagues society's most vulnerable individuals, particularly children, women, and labourers. Arizona, like the rest of the nation, continues to face the challenge head-on and make strides in combating human trafficking. Understanding Arizona's human trafficking laws is critical because it allows you to recognise, avoid and potentially stop human trafficking.

What is Human Trafficking?

Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that involves the exploitation of individuals for forced labour or commercial sex. While trafficking is often associated with cross-border movements, trafficking can also occur within the country's borders. Victims are often coerced or deceived into exploitation and cannot leave their situation without significant risk to themselves or their loved ones.

Arizona's Human Trafficking Laws

Arizona's human trafficking laws expressly criminalise a wide range of human trafficking offences, including: sex trafficking, labour trafficking, child sex trafficking, trafficking of children, and trafficking of vulnerable adults. Arizona law enforcement officials are empowered to investigate and prosecute individuals or organisations that engage in trafficking activities. Anyone found guilty of human trafficking in Arizona is subject to a prison sentence, probation, and fines.

The Punishment for Human Trafficking

The punishment for human trafficking depends on the severity of the crime. In Arizona, sex trafficking is punished more severely than labour trafficking. If found guilty of sex trafficking, the offender may face a sentence of up to life in prison. If found guilty of labour trafficking, the offender may face a sentence of 5 to 25 years in prison.

Arizona's Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking

The demand for human trafficking encourages and maintains the trafficking industry. Arizona has implemented several strategies to address the demand side of human trafficking. Over the last decade, Arizona has also established resources for victims of exploitation, including emergency housing, medical and legal services, and counselling. Furthermore, Arizona has implemented education and training programmes aimed at raising public awareness about human trafficking and how to prevent it.

Reporting Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is challenging to detect and investigate, but it is critical to report it for your safety and the safety of others. The National Human Trafficking Hotline is an excellent resource for reporting trafficking activities or seeking assistance. The organisation can be reached at 1-888-373-7888, and your call could help save lives.

The Importance of Understanding Human Trafficking Laws

Comprehending Arizona's human trafficking laws will equip you to recognise and report potential trafficking activities. Knowledge of these laws assists in preventing trafficking by decreasing the demand and encouraging community involvement in reporting trafficking activities. Arizona's human trafficking laws also supply victims of trafficking with the resources and services they require to recover, rebuild, and reintegrate into society.


Human trafficking is a despicable crime that continues to create misery for those exploited. It is critical to understand Arizona's human trafficking legislation because it aids in the prevention of trafficking activities and the safeguarding of vulnerable communities. Everyone must unite to reduce the demand for human trafficking and eradicate the practice forever.

Arizona Human Trafficking Laws Explained-

Monday, June 3, 2024

What to do if your Ex won't Sell the House: Expert Advice from De Novo Law

Feature Article

When Love Ends, The Battle For The House Begins

Breaking up is hard to do. But when you own a property with your ex-partner, an already tough situation turns into a nightmare. One of the most common issues that arise during a separation is the division of assets, and one of the most disputed is the family home. It's not uncommon for a spouse or domestic partner to refuse to sell the house, forcing the other party to seek legal advice and look for ways to resolve the issue.

What Can You Do If Your Ex Refuses To Sell The House?

It's important to understand your legal rights when you find yourself in this situation. Fortunately, there are several options available, and it's not always necessary to go to court. Here are some of the ways you can resolve the issue:

Option 1: Negotiation

If possible, it's always best to try and reach an agreement outside of court. This not only saves time and money but also helps you maintain an amicable relationship with your ex-partner. Negotiation can involve various options, such as offering to buy out your ex's share of the property, agreeing to a sale price that works for both of you, or establishing a timeline to list the property for sale. A family law attorney can help you understand your options and negotiate on your behalf.

Option 2: Mediation

If you're having trouble reaching an agreement through negotiation, you may want to consider mediation. A mediator is a neutral third party who can help facilitate a conversation between you and your ex-partner. They can help you identify your goals, find common ground, and work toward a resolution that works for both parties. The main benefit of mediation is that it's a confidential process that allows you to maintain more control over the outcome compared to going to court.

Option 3: Court Proceedings

If negotiations and mediation fail to resolve the issue, your only recourse may be to take the matter to court. This is often the most expensive and time-consuming option, but it may be necessary if your ex is unwilling to cooperate or is acting unlawfully. Your family law attorney can guide you through the court process and present your case in front of a judge, who will ultimately decide on the outcome. Keep in mind that court proceedings can be emotionally draining and stressful, and they also come with no guarantees.

Option 4: Unilateral Action

If you're at your wits' end and believe that your ex is acting unlawfully, you may want to explore unilateral action. This typically involves seeking a court order that forces your ex-partner to sell the property. You will need to provide evidence that shows your ex is acting unreasonably or is causing financial harm, such as refusing to pay the mortgage or maintenance costs. While this option is available, it's often a last resort and should only be pursued after consulting with a family law attorney.

Option 5: Legal Separation

If you're not yet divorced and you and your ex-partner can't agree on what to do with the family home, you may want to consider getting a legal separation. This essentially creates a legal structure that allows you to live separately while still being legally married. A legal separation can help you resolve property and child custody issues. It can also help you determine what will happen to the family home if you decide to get divorced.

Option 6: Partition Action

If you and your ex-partner own the property as tenants in common, you may want to consider a partition action. This is a legal process that allows you to force the sale of the property, even if your ex doesn't agree. A partition action can be an expensive and time-consuming process, but it may be necessary if you're unable to reach an agreement any other way.

Option 7: Buyout Your Ex's Share

If you're determined to keep the family home, you can always consider buying out your ex's share of the property. This involves negotiating a specific buyout amount and paying the funds to your ex either in a single lump sum or through a payment plan. If it's not possible to come up with the funds on your own, you may need to consider refinancing the mortgage or applying for a loan.

It's important to consider your financial situation and to seek legal advice before making any major decisions about the family home. Remember, there are options available; it's just a matter of finding the one that works best for you and your ex-partner.

For more information about dealing with the issue of an ex-partner refusing to sell a shared property, contact De Novo Law at 480-802-8232. Our team of experienced family law legal paraprofessionals can help you understand your options and work toward a peaceful resolution.

Ex Refuses to Sell the House - Options

Saturday, May 18, 2024

Field Sobriety Tests in Boating DUIs: A Look at their Usage in Arizona

Feature Article: Exploring Field Sobriety Tests in Boating DUI Cases

Picture yourself on a warm summer day, cruising along a lake or river with friends or family. The sun is shining, the sky is blue, and the water is calm. But what happens when that peaceful day on the water takes a dangerous turn due to an OUI offense? Boating while under the influence of drugs or alcohol can have serious consequences, including legal repercussions, accidents, and even fatalities. In this article, we'll explore the use of field sobriety tests in boating DUI cases.

The Legality of Boating Checkpoints

In Arizona, law enforcement agencies have the authority to set up boating DUI checkpoints, similar to roadside sobriety checkpoints for drivers. These checkpoints are designed to systematically check boaters for signs of intoxication and are legally upheld under guidelines that ensure they are conducted fairly. While some may argue that these checkpoints infringe on personal freedoms and are a waste of taxpayer money, many others see them as a necessary tool in keeping waterways safe from reckless boaters.

Understanding Field Sobriety Tests

One of the primary tools used by law enforcement at boating checkpoints are field sobriety tests. These tests generally fall into three categories:

  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN): A test where an officer observes the voluntary jerking of a person's eyes, looking for any signs of nystagmus, or involuntary jerking of the eyes, which can be an indication of impairment.
  • Walk and Turn (WAT): A test where an individual is asked to take nine heel-to-toe steps in a straight line, turn on one foot, and take nine more heel-to-toe steps back down the line. Officers are evaluating the individual's ability to follow instructions, balance, and maintain a smooth gait.
  • One-Leg Stand (OLS): A test where an individual is asked to stand on one leg while raising the other leg approximately six inches off the ground and counting out loud for a specific amount of time. Officers will look for any signs of swaying, hopping, or using arms for balance, which can be indications of impairment.

The Effectiveness of Field Sobriety Tests in Boating DUI Cases

While field sobriety tests can be effective tools in identifying impaired boaters, they are not foolproof. There are a number of factors that can affect test results, including medical conditions, nervousness, fatigue, and even the weather conditions on the water. Additionally, officers evaluating test results may have varying levels of training and experience, which can also impact the accuracy of test results.

That said, the use of field sobriety tests has been validated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and have been upheld by courts in cases involving both driving and boating under the influence. It's important to note, however, that field sobriety tests should be just one piece of evidence used to determine whether or not an individual is impaired.

The Consequences of Boating Under the Influence

The consequences of boating under the influence can be severe. Individuals who are caught boating while impaired may face fines, jail time, and even the revocation of their boating license. Additionally, impaired boaters are at a much higher risk for accidents, injuries, and fatalities on the water, putting not only themselves but also other boaters, swimmers, and bystanders in danger.

The Importance of Boating Safety

Boating is a fun and enjoyable activity that should be conducted safely and responsibly. This means avoiding drugs and alcohol while operating a boat, wearing life jackets, being aware of weather conditions, and following all boating rules and regulations. By taking boating safety seriously, we can all help to prevent accidents and tragedies on the water.

Contact an Experienced Boating DUI Attorney

If you or someone you know has been charged with a boating DUI offense, it's important to contact an experienced attorney who can help protect your rights. The Law Offices of Arja Shah handles boating DUI cases and provides high-quality legal representation to clients throughout Arizona. Contact us today to schedule a free consultation and learn more about how we can help defend your case.

Field Sobriety Tests in Boating DUI

Wednesday, May 15, 2024

Preston Lord's Death: Community Awaiting Arrests and on Edge

Feature Article

Community on Edge as Arrests Awaited in Preston Lord’s Death

In January of 2024, the community of Queen Creek, Arizona, was rocked by the tragic death of Preston Lord. Three months later, the community is still waiting for arrests to be made in connection to the case, and tensions are running high. The lack of progress in the case has left many feeling frustrated and fearful. This feature article will explore the details of the case, the impact it has had on the community, and the potential outcomes.

The Facts of the Case: What We Know

Preston Lord was a beloved member of the Queen Creek community, and his death has left many in shock. According to police reports, Lord was found dead in his home on the evening of October 22nd, 2023. The cause of death is still unknown, but investigators believe foul play was involved.

25 days ago, charges were referred to the county prosecutor’s office, but no arrests have been made. The lack of progress in the case has led many community members to question the authorities and demand justice for Preston Lord.

The Community Reacts: Fear and Frustration

The lack of progress in the case has left many in the Queen Creek community feeling fearful and frustrated. Some have taken to social media to express their concerns, while others have organized protests and rallies to demand action.

The prolonged investigation has also had a ripple effect on the mental health of the community. Residents report feeling anxious and on-edge, with many struggling to cope with the uncertainty and fear surrounding the case.

The Potential Outcomes: Justice for Preston Lord

While the lack of progress in the case is certainly concerning, there is still hope for justice for Preston Lord. The county prosecutor’s office is continuing to review the charges, and it is possible that arrests could be made in the near future.

Community members are also taking action to keep the pressure on the authorities and ensure that the case remains in the public eye. By advocating for justice, the community can help ensure that Preston Lord’s memory is honored and that those responsible for his death are held accountable.

The Importance of Community Support in Times of Tragedy

The case of Preston Lord’s death underscores the critical role that community support plays in times of tragedy. The outpouring of grief and support from the Queen Creek community has been a source of strength for many in the wake of this tragedy.

Community members have come together to mourn Lord’s passing, to offer support to his loved ones, and to demand justice. By standing together, the community is sending a powerful message that they will not rest until justice is served.

The Need for Accountability and Closure

At the heart of the community’s demands for justice is a deep need for accountability and closure. While the investigation into Preston Lord’s death is ongoing, the community is left in a state of limbo. Without closure, there can be no healing.

By advocating for justice and keeping the case in the public eye, the community is taking an important step towards closure. Only when those responsible for Preston Lord’s death are held accountable can the community begin to move forward, and honor Lord’s memory with the love and respect he deserves.


The case of Preston Lord’s death has had a profound impact on the Queen Creek community, leaving many fearful, frustrated, and anxious. While progress has been slow, there is still hope for justice, thanks to the efforts of community members advocating for accountability and closure.

As the investigation into Lord’s death continues, it is important that the community remains united and dedicated to the cause of justice. Only when those responsible for Lord’s death are brought to justice can the community begin to heal, and honor Lord’s memory with the love and respect he deserves.

Justice for Preston Lord-Arrests

Friday, April 26, 2024

"Uncovering Hidden Assets in Arizona Divorce: How to Deal with an Ex-Spouse's Secrecy"

Investigative Article

Exposing Hidden Assets: Strategies for Uncovering Financial Deception in an Arizona Divorce

Going through a divorce is challenging enough as it is without having to worry about your ex-spouse potentially hiding assets. Unfortunately, financial deception is a common occurrence in divorce cases, and it can lead to an inequitable division of assets or even legal consequences. Disclosing all assets is a legal requirement in Arizona divorce and can be enforced through legal discovery tools. However, what happens if you suspect that your partner is being dishonest? This article will examine the various tactics that can be used to uncover hidden assets in an Arizona divorce case.

What are hidden assets?

Hidden assets or undisclosed assets are those that one spouse intentionally conceals from the other during a divorce. Assets can be hidden in several ways, such as transferring funds to a secret account, overpaying creditors, overpaying taxes, establishing a dummy business, or undervaluing assets. There are different types of assets that are commonly hidden, including cash, stocks, savings accounts, or even personal property like artwork or jewelry.

Why do people hide assets?

The reasons for hiding assets in a divorce are manifold. Some may fear that their spouse will take a fair share of the marital property, while others may want to protect their assets from business creditors, bankruptcy, or other legal issues. In some cases, one spouse may feel entitled to the assets or believe that they contributed more to the marriage and deserve a larger share of the property.

Legal procedures for identifying hidden assets

If you suspect that your spouse is hiding assets, your legal team can use legal discovery tools to uncover them. These include subpoenas, depositions, and requests for production of documents and records. Discovery is a formal and legal process through which each party to a lawsuit (including a divorce) obtains evidence from the other side or third parties to prepare for trial or negotiation. In many cases, a forensic accountant may also be hired to locate and evaluate complex financial situations, identify any missing funds, or trace the flow of money. Forensic accountants also compile reports to present their findings to the court, which may reveal a clear picture of the spouse's financial situation.

The importance of hiring a forensic accountant

A spouse might hide assets by creating complex financial structures that are impossible for the typical person to understand. An accountant with forensic capabilities can help identify discrepancies in financial documentation, uncover hidden accounts or cash transactions, and explain any suspicious financial behaviors. Forensic accountants can also provide expert testimony in court about their findings, thereby bolstering the weight of your case.

Other areas hidden assets might be found

Various clues or warning signs may suggest that your spouse is hiding assets. These might include changes in spending, unusual banking activity, suspicious financial transactions, or missing financial documents. However, hidden assets may also manifest in other ways that are less obvious, such as a newly opened P.O. box or a sudden interest in collecting valuable assets like art or wine. Investigating offshore accounts, cryptocurrency, pensions, trusts, and other marital assets can also help to identify hidden assets.

Proving hidden assets in court

Proving that your spouse is hiding assets in court may be challenging, but it is not impossible. Establishing proof of hidden assets requires obtaining solid evidence that shows the hiding of assets. Evidence could include credit card statements, bank statements, real estate records, insurance invoices, and tax returns, among other documentation. Forensic accountants can also provide critical evidence in proving the existence of hidden assets in a divorce. The court may impose legal penalties, such as fines or imprisonment, if it determines that one party has hidden assets.


Uncovering hidden assets is a crucial aspect of a fair divorce settlement that ensures an equitable distribution of the marital property. While it may be challenging to locate hidden assets, working closely with legal experts and forensic accountants can make a difference. Protecting your interests during a divorce means being prepared for every eventuality and maintaining a clear focus on achieving a favorable outcome. For more information about hidden assets in an Arizona divorce click here.


Thursday, April 11, 2024

False Positive Breathalyzer Test: Understanding and Contesting a DUI Charge in Arizona

Feature Article: Uncovering the Truth Behind False Positive Breathalyzer Tests

Getting pulled over for suspected DUI is a intimidating experience for most drivers. The anxiety and embarrassment of being asked to take a breathalyzer test, followed by seeing a false positive result that could lead to serious consequences, can be devastating. In this feature article, we'll explore the truth behind false positive breathalyzer tests, their potential consequences, and what you can do to contest them.

The Science Behind Breathalyzer Tests

A breathalyzer is a device used to measure a person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by analyzing their breath. When a person consumes alcohol, it enters their bloodstream and is carried throughout their body, including their lungs. As a result, alcohol molecules are exhaled through the breath, and the concentration of alcohol in the breath can be measured by the breathalyzer.

However, there are several factors that can affect the accuracy of breathalyzer tests. For instance, the device may not be calibrated correctly, the person administering the test may not have followed proper procedures, or the person being tested may have a medical condition or have recently used mouthwash or breath freshener, which can cause false positive readings.

The Consequences of False Positive Breathalyzer Tests

A false positive breathalyzer test can have serious consequences, including a DUI charge, license suspension, hefty fines, and even jail time. A driver may also face higher insurance rates or restrictions on their driving privileges. Additionally, a DUI conviction can negatively impact a driver's employment and personal life, making it important to fully understand the accuracy and reliability of breathalyzer tests.

Contesting False Positive Breathalyzer Test Results

If you've received a false positive result from a breathalyzer test, it's essential to take action to protect your rights. First, it's important to gather as much evidence as possible to support your case. This may include obtaining a second opinion from a trusted medical professional, documenting any relevant medical conditions or medications you may be taking, or challenging the device's calibration or administration of the test. Additionally, it may be helpful to hire a knowledgeable DUI attorney who can help guide you through the process and provide legal representation.

One common method of contesting a false positive breathalyzer test result is to argue that the device was not calibrated correctly or that the officer administering the test did not follow proper procedures. Another strategy may be to challenge the test results by presenting evidence that demonstrates that the driver was not impaired at the time of the stop. This may include witness testimony, video footage, or other relevant evidence.

The Importance of Legal Representation

When facing a DUI charge based on a false positive breathalyzer test result, it's essential to seek legal representation. A skilled DUI attorney can help you understand the legal system and your rights, work to build a strong defense case, and represent you in court. They can also negotiate with prosecutors and judges on your behalf to help you achieve the best possible outcome in your case.

Protecting Yourself From False Positive Breathalyzer Tests

While it may not be possible to completely eliminate the risk of a false positive breathalyzer test, there are steps you can take to protect yourself. First, avoid alcohol or any other substance that can impact your ability to drive before getting behind the wheel. Additionally, be cognizant of what you eat or drink before driving. For instance, some foods and drinks, such as energy drinks, can cause false positive readings. Lastly, if you are pulled over for suspected DUI, be respectful and cooperative with law enforcement, but avoid saying or doing anything that could potentially incriminate you.


A false positive breathalyzer test result can have serious consequences, but with the right knowledge and support, you can contest the results and protect your rights. Remember, if you've received a false positive breathalyzer test, it's important to remain calm and consult with a knowledgeable DUI attorney as soon as possible. With the right legal representation and a strong defense, you can fight the charges and get back on track.

False Positive Breathalyzer Test-False,Contesting

Monday, April 1, 2024

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) Testing Services for All Ages

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) Testing Services for All Ages

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is a common condition that affects how the brain processes auditory information. When someone has APD, they might struggle to understand what is being said, especially in noisy environments. While it is more common in children, adults can also be affected.

Understanding Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Process Disorder, commonly referred to as APD, is characterized by difficulties in processing auditory information efficiently. The brain and hearing mechanisms may not work harmoniously, leading to challenges in hearing and understanding speech correctly.

What Causes Auditory Processing Disorder?

The core of APD lies in the interference of the signal transfer from the inner ear to the brain. Children or adults with APD might find it challenging to grasp all sounds clearly, leading to difficulties in understanding spoken communication effectively.

Signs and Symptoms

Recognizing the signs of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is crucial:

  • Difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy places.
  • Struggles in following directions accurately.
  • Inability to discriminate between similar speech sounds.
  • Requesting repetitions or clarifications often.
  • Challenges in academic settings, such as reading and comprehension.

Testing for APD

Diagnosing APD requires a series of comprehensive tests conducted by an audiologist. These evaluations assess the individual's ability to process a variety of auditory signals. Testing for APD is critical to determine the proper intervention and support required for the individual.

Can APD be Treated?

Yes, treatments for APD are highly individualized. They focus on enhancing the learning environment, developing compensatory skills, and addressing the auditory deficit itself. With the appropriate interventions, individuals with APD can experience improvements in their auditory processing capabilities.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is auditory processing disorder a form of ADHD?
  2. Does auditory processing disorder get worse with age?
  3. What age can you test for auditory processing disorder?

For more information on Auditory Processing Disorder and diagnostic services, visit Professional Audiological Services Inc..


Monday, March 18, 2024

Understanding Arizona Stalking Laws: ARS 13-2923

Investigative Article: Examining the Implications of Arizona Stalking Laws

Stalking is a serious offense that can lead to devastating consequences for victims. It is a pattern of behavior that instills fear and can even lead to physical harm. As such, Arizona lawmakers have created laws to address stalking and protect victims. ARS 13-2923 is one such law that defines stalking and outlines the legal actions that can be taken against a stalker. In this investigative article, we will take a deep dive into the nuances of ARS 13-2923 and examine its implications.

The Definition of Stalking

ARS 13-2923, as mentioned earlier, defines stalking as a course of conduct directed at a specific person. This conduct instills fear in the victim and causes substantial emotional distress. The behavior can include following, monitoring, or communicating with the victim in a way not authorized by law. But what does this mean in practical terms?

Stalking can come in many forms, including but not limited to:

  • Repetitive phone calls or text messages
  • Showing up uninvited to the victim's home or workplace
  • Following the victim's movements
  • Sending unwanted gifts or letters
  • Posting information or messages about the victim online

What distinguishes these actions from harmless behavior is the pattern and persistence of the stalker's behavior. The victim must reasonably fear for their safety or suffer substantial emotional distress.

The Implications of ARS 13-2923

ARS 13-2923 has significant implications for both victims and the accused. For victims, the law provides a remedy to protect themselves from stalkers. They can seek protection orders, which prohibit the stalker from contacting or coming near the victim. A violation of the protection order will result in legal consequences for the stalker. Additionally, the law offers criminal penalties for stalking, including imprisonment and fines.

For the accused, ARS 13-2923 can lead to severe consequences. Stalking charges may limit job opportunities and harm the accused's reputation. If found guilty, the offender may face jail time and hefty fines. Additionally, they may be required to attend counseling or therapy to address their behavior. It is important to note that, in some cases, the accused may not even realize the harm they are causing. Regardless, the law deems stalking as an offense, and it is up to the accused to prove their innocence.

Preventing Stalking

While ARS 13-2923 provides legal action against stalkers, it is ultimately up to the individual to prevent stalking from occurring. Here are some tips for preventing stalking:

  • Be cautious of the information you share online, including social media profiles and geotagged posts
  • Trust your instincts. If you feel uncomfortable or anxious around someone, take action to protect yourself
  • Do not engage with the stalker, including responding to phone calls or text messages
  • Notify the authorities of any suspicious behavior or threats
  • Seek support from friends, family, or support groups

The Importance of Taking Action

Stalking is a serious issue, and it is imperative to take action to protect victims and prevent future occurrences. ARS 13-2923 serves as a legal framework to deter stalkers and provide victims with the necessary resources to protect themselves. However, the effectiveness of the law relies on proper implementation and enforcement. It is essential for law enforcement officials to recognize the signs of stalking and take action accordingly. Moreover, it is up to individuals to educate themselves and others on the dangers of stalking.

The implications of ARS 13-2923 reach far beyond the boundaries of Arizona. The law sets a precedent for other states to follow in addressing stalking and protecting victims. It is a reminder of the importance of taking stalking seriously and the gravity of its consequences.


ARS 13-2923 serves as a critical legal instrument in protecting victims of stalking. It defines stalking and outlines the legal repercussions for perpetrators. However, it is up to individuals and law enforcement officials to take action to prevent stalking from occurring. By following prevention tips and recognizing the signs of stalking, we can protect ourselves and others from its devastating consequences.

Don't hesitate to seek help if you are a victim or know someone who is. Together, we can raise awareness and prevent stalking from claiming any more victims.


Monday, March 4, 2024

False Positive Breathalyzer Tests: Understanding DUI Charge Possibilities in Arizona

Feature Article

The Controversy of False Positive Breathalyzer Tests and How to Contest Them

Being pulled over for suspicion of driving under the influence can be a nerve-wracking experience, especially if you feel confident you have not consumed enough alcohol to be over the legal limit. However, a breathalyzer test can create a false sense of guilt, leading to a DUI charge even if you are innocent. This Feature Article will explore the controversy of false positive breathalyzer tests and provide insight on how to contest them in court.

What is a False Positive Breathalyzer Test?

A false positive breathalyzer test is when the device indicates a BAC level above the legal limit of 0.08%, even when the driver has not consumed enough alcohol to be over the limit or has not consumed any alcohol at all. False positives can occur due to several factors, such as:

  • Mouthwash or breath fresheners
  • Medications or medical conditions
  • Diet or recent food intake
  • Improper breathalyzer calibration or administration

Despite the prevalence of false positives, many states, including Arizona, still maintain laws that allow for DUI charges based on BAC readings from breathalyzers, even if the readings are inaccurate.

The Gray Area of "Impairment to the Slightest Degree"

Arizona's DUI statutes go beyond traditional BAC levels and include a provision for "impairment to the slightest degree." This means that a DUI charge can be brought against a driver who has a BAC below the legal limit or even if there is a false positive, simply because the officer believes the driver's ability to operate a vehicle was impaired in any way.

However, this leaves room for interpretation and often puts innocent drivers in the difficult position of trying to prove their sobriety in court.

Contesting a False Positive Breathalyzer Test in Court

If you have been charged with a DUI based on a false positive breathalyzer test, you have the right to contest the accuracy of the test in court. Here are some steps to take to increase your chances of a successful defense:

1. Question the Breathalyzer's Calibration and Maintenance

Breathalyzers must be regularly maintained and calibrated to ensure accurate readings. If the device used to test your BAC was not calibrated correctly, it may have produced an inaccurate reading, resulting in a false positive.

2. Challenge the Administration of the Test

The way in which the breathalyzer test was administered could affect the accuracy of the test results. For example, if the test was not administered according to protocol or if the officer did not allow for a sufficient waiting period before administering the test, the results may be compromised.

3. Consider Medical or Dietary Reasons for a False Positive

Medical conditions such as acid reflux, diabetes, or liver disease can cause false positives on breathalyzer tests. Certain diets that include high amounts of protein or low-carb foods can also affect the results of breathalyzer tests.

4. Hire an Experienced DUI Attorney

Contesting a DUI charge based on a false positive breathalyzer test is a complex legal process that requires knowledge and experience in DUI defense law. Hiring an experienced DUI attorney can significantly improve your chances of a successful defense.

The Bottom Line: You Can Contest a False Positive Breathalyzer Test

A false positive breathalyzer test can have serious consequences, including a DUI charge, license suspension, and, in some cases, even jail time. However, it is important to remember that a DUI charge based on a false positive is not definitive and can be contested in court. By understanding the factors that can cause false positives and hiring an experienced DUI attorney to represent you in court, you can fight to clear your name and avoid the negative consequences of a false DUI charge.

If you or someone you know has been charged with a DUI based on a false positive breathalyzer test, visit to learn more and get the help you need to contest the charge.